When we finally have a quantum internet you’ll
be able to simultaneously like and dislike this video. But we don’t yet. So I hope you like it. The world is widely regarded as being well
and truly into the digital age, also called the information age. No longer are economies and industries are solely
characterized by the physical goods they produce, and in fact some of the largest companies
in the world produce no physical goods at all: digital information is a commodity in
its own right. As discussed in a previous episode, this worldwide
digital economy is fundamentally reliant on certain cryptographic processes. Currently these processes work in the realm
of classical cryptography, but one day soon this may not be enough and so quantum cryptographic
methods and algorithms are being developed. However, it’s one thing to design a protocol,
it’s something else entirely to build a system to support it. To understand what needs to be done we need
to get to the foundations of quantum mechanics – we need to talk about quantum information
theory. First plain-old non-quantum information theory
– the study of the creation, storage, and transmission of information, typically in
the form of classical bits, 1’s and 0’s. Claude Shannon started it all with his 1948
paper “A Mathematical Theory of Communication”, which quantified the rate of digital information
that can be transferred without error given the amount of noise in a communication channel. Information theory has since blossomed into
a full science, ultimately connecting the concept of information and certain fundamentals
of physics – such as entropy, and also quantum theory. Quantum information theory parallels classical
information theory, but instead of using classical bits, it deals bits of quantum information
– qubits. Qubits enjoy all of the weirdness of quantum
mechanics – they can be in a superposition of many states at once, defined only when
they are measured, two qubits can be entangled with each other, so both of their states are
determined when one is measured; they can even be teleported. Qubits are also subject to some fundamental
restrictions, which I’ll get to. Those restrictions, on top of all the weirdness,
define the challenge of transmitting and storing quantum information. But first, a reminder why we want to muck
around with quantum info in the first place. First there’s the whole quantum computer
thing – in those, the ability for a qubit to hold many simultaneous states can lead
to massive speed-ups in certain types of computing. Partly motivated by the cryptographic-cracking
power of the quantum computer, we also want to think about a quantum internet. In fact we already did. In our episode on quantum key distribution
we talked about two schemes for sharing cryptographic keys that should be far more secure than classical
counterparts. But these only work if you can actually send
entangled quantum states between parties – that means transmitting qubits over long distances
perfectly intact. So ultimately what is preventing from us just
setting up these networks and getting on with it? We can already send photons of light very
long distances using lasers or fiber optics – and those photons are pretty quantum. The problem is that to transmit quantum information
we have to pay attention to individual photons – quanta of light. To transfer classical information using light,
each bit is encoded with many photons, and many can be lost or altered en route without
compromising the signal. If too many photons are lost you
can just run the channel through a repeater, which reads the signal and boosts it with
extra photons. It’s much harder to transmit single photons
in a way that perfectly maintains their quantum state. And it’s fundamentally impossible to boost
that signal by duplicating those photons. This impossibility is referred to as the no-cloning
theorem. It simply states that: “you cannot take
a quantum state and copy it perfectly and end up with two copies of the same state existing
at the same time”. This is connected to the law of conservation
of quantum information, which we’ve talked about before – it comes from the fact that
every quantum state in the universe must be perfectly traceable – single quantum state
to single quantum state – both forwards and backwards in time. That prohibits a quantum state vanishing,
but also splitting in two – or being copied. The no cloning theorem means that as soon
as you try to read a qubit, which you have to do at some point to make the copy, you
disturb the state in such a way that you will never end up with two exact copies of the
same quantum state. Plus, even if you could copy it, you wouldn’t
really be able to transmit an entangled quantum state because the act of reading in the state
to copy it would destroy the entanglement through a phenomenon called decoherence. While it’s impossible to copy a qubit, it
IS possible to overwrite one – and it can be overwritten with exactly the same state
but in a completely different location. In other words, qubits can be teleported. This doesn’t allow faster-than-light communication nor teleportation of actual matter,
because a classical, sub-light-speed channel is still needed to extract the information. But quantum information DOES allow us to
massively extend the range over which we can send an intact qubit. No copying or boosting needed. Think of it this way: Two people, let’s say Bill and Ted, are
connected by a classical channel and a quantum channel. The classical channel can be anything – a
fibre optic cable, a telephone wire, the Pony Express, whatever, while the quantum channel
needs to carry intact quantum states – so it’s probably fibre optics. A pair of entangled particles are created,
and Bill and Ted receive one each via the quantum channel. Bill has qubit A and Ted has qubit B. Now,
say Bill wants to send a message to Ted, and that message is stored as the state of a third
qubit – qubit C. That would be only one bit of information, but you could always use
more qubits. To send that message, Bill performs a particular
type of measurement on his qubits called a Bell measurement – not a ‘Bill’ measurement. Performing this measurement simultaneously
on A and C entangles these qubits but breaks the entanglement between A and B. However
qubit B then has to be in whatever state C was in prior to the measurement. Let’s look at a more concrete example – although
I have to say that this is way oversimplified. Qubits A and B could be the polarization states
of two photons. They’re entangled so that they have opposite
polarization, say one is vertical the other is horizontal. Measure one and you immediately know the other. Now Bill takes photon A and entangles it with
photon C using a Bell measurement so that now A and C have opposite polarization. Photon B, which was opposite to A, must now
be the same polarization as the original photon C. At this point the original quantum state
of photon C, which contains the message, has been almost completely teleported to photon B. The reason it’s an incomplete explanation
is that there is more to the quantum state of C than simply the aspect of polarization
that is fixed by the entanglement. The remaining information of the quantum state
is actually obtained by observing the outcome of the process that generated the entanglement
itself. This measurement outcome is encoded in two
classical bits which Bill sends to Ted along the classical channel. Using the information in these two bits Ted
can then calibrate a measurement of his own qubit B, after which that qubit will
be in the state qubit C was at the start. A minor technical caveat is that you we are only
using photonic qubits then it’s not so easy to perform a Bell measurement that will give
all of the information we need for this final step, but all of this is definitely possible with matter
qubits. Combined with a quantum key distribution protocol,
this can give a mechanism for secure communication. It can also be used to transmit quantum information
over longer distances than we could normally send entangled particles. Just position repeaters along the quantum
channel between Bill and Ted. Bill performs the above trick with the nearest
repeater, that repeater communicates with the next repeater, and so on until we reach
Ted – who should still get a copy of the original qubit C. In principle this can be
done without the quantum channel ever becoming un-quantum. Which means it stays secure. OK, sounds easy, right? but there are complications. It’s pretty much impossible to do all the
transmissions, entanglements, and measurements in perfect synchrony. Quantum states have to somehow be stored – by
Bill, by Ted, and by the repeaters in between. This typically means transferring a quantum
state between a photon and a matter particle – say, an electron whose up or down spin
direction can be entangled with the polarization state of a photon. But storing delicate quantum states for any
length of time is hard work – especially if you don’t want insanely expensive supercooled
devices. Experimentalists have of course come up with
a number of ingenious solutions, ranging from storing entangled photon quantum states in
a cloud of caesium atoms, a kind of quantum atomic disk drive, or the spin-state of a
single electron in a nitrogen atom embedded in diamond crystal. In the future, if entangled states can be
maintained for long periods, it may be possible for two people to hold a large array of mutually
entangled qubits, which they could use to communicate by exchanging classical Bell measurement data. This could also be done between many individuals
in a centralized node – a sort of quantum switchboard. There are also proposals for removing the
need for physical storage all together, with repeaters that are entirely photonic. These are great because they’re much, much
faster than repeaters that have to transfer quantum states between photons and matter
particles. So the current state of the art is that entangled
quantum states have been transmitted with photons using fibre optics and lasers. Some researchers have even succeeded in bouncing
entangled photons off a satellite. These photons can then transfer their entangled
states into a variety of matter storage systems, which may eventually serve as repeaters to
extend the range and connect a network of these quantum channels. Reliability and speed are not where we need
them to be, but the progress is fast. We currently live in the information age,
but it’s a classical information age. We’ve gotten pretty far sending streams
of 1’s and 0’s round the world, but if we could build truly quantum networks we’ll
also be able to build the next generation of cryptographic protocols, distributed quantum
computers, as well as achieve new levels of atomic clock synchronization and extreme precision
in our interferometric telescopes. The quantum information age is around the
corner. I’m guessing we’ll go with “quantum
age” – as the quantum internet enables us to take advantage of the incredible properties
of our quantum space time. In a recent episode we talked about Thorium
and the future of Nuclear Energy! You guys had a lot to say. austin holbrook says we need to do a better
job of breaking the common misconception that nuclear power plants can explode like Atom bombs. In fact, they cannot – and I wished we’d a done a better job emphasizing that. It’s really, really hard to even make a critical
mass of fissile material explode like an atom bomb – it’s a very precise engineering feat. And there’s absolutely no way that a bunch of fuel
rods could do that. Deri662 points out that proliferation is an
especially lower risk from thorium reactors due to the fact that the U-233 bred by that
reactor is very difficult to handle in bomb-making. That’s because it decays to protactinium isotope
that itself decays to emit a very high energy gamma ray, and that gamma radiation can fry
bomb electronics and is relatively easily detected. This is a good point, it’s not quite foolproof
because the decay products leading to protactinium can potentially be separated and removed. That said, anything that raises the bar on
proliferation is good. I feel that the greatest proliferation threat
is easy acquisition of weaponizable material by small, crackpot outfits that probably couldn’t do that separation easily. Sam Ferguson mentions the pebble bed reactor. Yeah, that’s a good one that we had to cut
out the script due to length. Nuclear fuel – typically uranium – is encased
in graphite balls. The balls act as the moderator so that each
pebble emits neutrons with the correct speed for sustaining fission in surrounding pebbles. They all lie in a big pile and spent pebbles
are cycled out from the bottom. It’s cool because it’s passively cooled by
gas flow – for example, helium. A gas coolant means that the coolant can’t boil,
like it did in Chernobyl. And in fact the system has much higher temperature
tolerance even if the coolant escapes – natural air circulation should keep it sub-meltdown temperature. One problem is that it’s hard to access and
inspect individual pebbles in the middle of the pile, so cracks in the graphite can go
undetected. Still, it seems a lot safer than a traditional
light-water reactor. TACCOFSX asks why the absorption of neutrons
transform U-238 into Pu-239. Yeah, I breezed over that point. Absorption of a neutron by itself doesn’t
change the element type – just the isotope. So U-238 turns to U-239, still with 92 protons. But U-239 is unstable and the extra
neutron quickly decays into a proton, emitting an electron and a neutrino, bumping it one
up on the periodic table. This is a common process, and it’s how all
the so-called trans-uranic elements get created in fission reactors. Cory Johnson notes that this discussion about
thorium reactors is moot… Because Fusion reactors are only 20 years
away. For those who don’t find that hilarious, let
me pedantically explain Cory’s joke: fusion has been projected to be 20 years away for
50 or so years. KowashiHitori points out that Wind and solar
won’t build battlemechs… just saying. Now, this is a very important point. Funnies aside, you can’t run an energy-hungry
compact vehicle on solar or batteries for very long. Battlemechs, submarines, spaceships, DeLorean
time machines – nuclear is probably the easiest option for the badass vehicles of the future.

The Quantum Internet
Tagged on:                                                                                                                                         

100 thoughts on “The Quantum Internet

  • July 21, 2019 at 2:53 am
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    Can you dumb it down for the 95% of us who watch?

    Reply
  • July 21, 2019 at 5:22 am
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    Ugh… We live in a computer : /

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  • July 21, 2019 at 7:41 am
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    hey wheres that time travel answer?

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  • July 21, 2019 at 8:02 am
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    But can it Minecraft?

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  • July 21, 2019 at 11:13 am
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    Turn the quantum internet into a sneaker web. Then, convert the sneaker web into automated drone delivery. Entangle the drones with hyper aggressive falcons to ensure data integrity and security.

    Reply
  • July 21, 2019 at 11:26 am
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    is it possible to entangle 3 qubit with each other?

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  • July 21, 2019 at 1:55 pm
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    the quantum internet is for quantum porn.

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  • July 21, 2019 at 3:54 pm
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    I think we are not in the classical information age. we have always been in Quantum information age in regards to the future, as ATM it exists and also it doesn't in the near future. When Quantum information does exist in the future, it exists with complete certunity, so we are not in quantum age then.

    Reply
  • July 21, 2019 at 7:57 pm
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    Weird since most of the world stuff isn’t secured at all

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  • July 21, 2019 at 9:16 pm
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    5:43 what had happened to Alice and Bob? 🙂

    Reply
  • July 22, 2019 at 3:16 am
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    I seriously need this "busted by the physics police" as a greenscreen standalone.

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  • July 22, 2019 at 9:50 am
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    was that the tricorder sound at 3:44?

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  • July 22, 2019 at 11:52 am
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    Excellent!

    Reply
  • July 22, 2019 at 1:29 pm
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    Ale masz wielki łeb

    Reply
  • July 22, 2019 at 3:36 pm
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    Yes, but actually no

    Reply
  • July 22, 2019 at 6:58 pm
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    That sounds a bit like fuzzy logic:).

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  • July 22, 2019 at 8:04 pm
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    Gorillas are simultaneously strong and intelligent.

    Reply
  • July 22, 2019 at 9:44 pm
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    6:35 why does entangling b with c "break the entanglement between a and b"?

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  • July 23, 2019 at 5:41 am
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    "We hope you like it"
    Every single one of your videos are amazing so, I mean….. Yeah 😀

    Reply
  • July 23, 2019 at 8:01 pm
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    I "liked" the video soon as he said "I hope you like it"

    Reply
  • July 23, 2019 at 9:58 pm
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    3:55 what about using a single photon and amplifying it so that all photons have the same polarization, for example using a laser?
    EDIT: while having all these photons be entangled or something

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  • July 23, 2019 at 10:36 pm
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    Thanks I need no sleeping pills anymore, PBS is a good Diazepam VDO Clip Zzzz

    Reply
  • July 24, 2019 at 8:21 pm
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    Lol i laughed way too fucking hard at that intro joke

    Reply
  • July 24, 2019 at 8:41 pm
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    Are you going to put quantum on every word just to make it cool?

    Reply
  • July 25, 2019 at 7:53 am
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    000-006 AI would too.

    Reply
  • July 25, 2019 at 2:20 pm
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    If we both have entangled particles, but I take mine on a high speed space flight so that it encounters relativistic time dilation, how do they still function? Will I arrive back at earth and find that I can check the spin of my particle an hour before you check yours, but we both find them to still have the same spin? What if I check it mid-flight? How do we synchronize our clocks, and what does that imply about the fundamental mechanics of entangled particles and the causes of their spin linking up over a distance?
    If they remained synchronous despite time dilation, then they aren't time dependent at all, but also sort of are…because both people have to check the spin at the same time, which implies a non-relativistic universal time. But if they de-synchronize then that kind of messes up a lot of assumptions about physics.
    WTF physics??! Y u do dis??!

    Reply
  • July 25, 2019 at 7:59 pm
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    This channel keeps my love for science and physics going while everything else in my life is tearing it down to pieces.

    Reply
  • July 25, 2019 at 8:30 pm
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    I am watching but I only got about 40%

    Reply
  • July 26, 2019 at 6:42 am
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    Quantum information theory: the diseased leftists already invented it. They call it true lies.

    Reply
  • July 27, 2019 at 8:47 am
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    I am so fascinated by the information in these spacetime videos. I only understand about 20-50% of what you are talking about but I’m not going to stop watching anytime soon! These episodes instill a sense of wonder and magic inside me.

    Reply
  • July 27, 2019 at 6:03 pm
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    finally be able to understand the Quantum Time Wastage techniqu

    Reply
  • July 27, 2019 at 9:39 pm
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    This is truly amazing. I can’t wait to see the quantum age.

    Reply
  • July 28, 2019 at 3:20 am
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    I want to see a series of videos , looking at the 1980s Tomorrows World series explaining what they got right and what they got wrong , Lots of Astronomy points in those shows , its what first got me interested in science , and laughed at when i embarrassed my science teach with a question 20 years ahead of its time. ( dismissive teaching because they didnt know the answer)

    Reply
  • July 28, 2019 at 9:46 am
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    Liked it after Matt's very first remark.

    Reply
  • July 28, 2019 at 2:35 pm
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    OMG PEOPLE CAN SUB ME INFINITE TIMES WITH ONE ACCOUNT!!!!!!!!!! OwO

    Reply
  • July 29, 2019 at 3:54 am
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    … and on that day, your bitcoin will be worthless.

    Reply
  • July 29, 2019 at 11:21 am
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    Minecraft

    Reply
  • July 29, 2019 at 3:22 pm
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    Deceptive name. X-) You had called this QIT I'd have watched it two weeks ago.

    Reply
  • July 29, 2019 at 3:31 pm
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    The polarization symbols look like deliberately made to be hard to tell apart (particularly when you want an overview and are not looking at them individually). Why not just horizontal and vertical bars? Even proper double arrows woul be a huge improvement.

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  • July 29, 2019 at 11:23 pm
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    I don't get anything. :/

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  • July 30, 2019 at 1:56 am
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    use earths electro magnetic field as a guide for the qbits

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  • July 30, 2019 at 4:53 am
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    Hahahaha, nice use of the Tricorder sound there at around the 3 min 45 mark 😉

    Reply
  • July 31, 2019 at 1:30 am
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    Magnificent video! Thanks for uploading!👍🏻👍🏻😎😎

    Reply
  • July 31, 2019 at 1:50 pm
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    Could matter cycle through fusion and fission like a pendulum to create something like alternating current?

    Reply
  • August 1, 2019 at 1:12 am
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    Quantum teleportation was one of the most difficult things I remember learning about recently. I think you did a good job. I think this perhaps could have been a series though. The only reason I was able to understand the concept was through the quantum circuit diagrams.

    Reply
  • August 1, 2019 at 4:21 pm
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    1:08
    Barely a minute in and you're already telling me to qit…

    Reply
  • August 2, 2019 at 8:59 pm
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    The future generation of quantum cryptographic protocols also means that the days of pirating movies and music are numbered.

    Reply
  • August 2, 2019 at 9:06 pm
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    So could a black hole be considered analogous to a quantum computer? Because from 6:00 onward it looked just like the entanglement interactions associated with Hawking radiation, where the information is stored on the event horizon.

    Reply
  • August 2, 2019 at 9:39 pm
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    RUSSEL BRAND?

    ZOMFG, BIG FAN. :O

    Reply
  • August 3, 2019 at 5:42 am
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    If quantum computing lives up to its unfathomable theorized potential, and it becomes commercially available and used widely,, our definition of "information", and how it is used, managed and transacted, will be different than it has been up until then. Computing a million times faster than we can today, and with quantum properties no less, will change our world-and us in ways we cannot predict. Our concepts of space, time, causation, state, stability, chaos, even reality will change. We today will not recognize and grasp what will seem like a different universe to us. It might well be different universes.

    Reply
  • August 3, 2019 at 3:57 pm
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    I was born dumb.

    Reply
  • August 4, 2019 at 2:48 pm
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    engineering-and-science.com

    Reply
  • August 5, 2019 at 5:11 am
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    You are saying something I always thought possible from reading bout quantum computing. However, I have heard physicists on net & read one book that you can't use quantum entanglements due to it being impossible to transfer information over distance. So confusing to me.

    Reply
  • August 6, 2019 at 1:35 am
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    3:45 Just wondering, how many people thought about Minecraft at this moment?

    Reply
  • August 9, 2019 at 10:58 pm
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    Thanks TU Delft for making this possible!

    Reply
  • August 9, 2019 at 11:25 pm
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    You know the first quantum link was already established in 2016? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=urGh3mbUzpY these guys from the TU Delft in The Netherlands explain you how.

    Reply
  • August 10, 2019 at 3:13 am
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    Okay so it's just like Minecraft redstone got it

    Reply
  • August 10, 2019 at 8:48 am
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    Please never cut anything relevant for length

    Reply
  • August 10, 2019 at 11:54 pm
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    The real question is can i like this video 2times with a quantum computer

    Reply
  • August 11, 2019 at 12:56 am
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    i feel like I'm fuckin Homer Simpson right now trying to watch this video

    Reply
  • August 12, 2019 at 4:57 am
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    Didn't understand shit

    Reply
  • August 18, 2019 at 8:45 am
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    quantum internet is still easier to understand than women

    Reply
  • August 18, 2019 at 10:45 pm
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    @PBSSpaceTime – Wouldnt it Had ben Easier just to State that You Werent – TELEPATHIC – i mean after all – Everthing you Just Spouted Out Directly Connects to The Telepathy Reasoning Definition

    Reply
  • August 19, 2019 at 12:28 pm
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    Explain to me: why do two entangled particles require a medium (fiber optic) to communicate through.. isn't the idea of a entangled particle that it doesn't mind the distance and does not require a medium if 1a is spin up for 1b to be spin down?

    Reply
  • August 22, 2019 at 3:07 am
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    "does not compute"

    Reply
  • August 22, 2019 at 10:01 pm
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    WHAT

    Reply
  • August 26, 2019 at 6:01 am
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    The internet will soon be purchasable in a box. And FPS will have zero ms lag no matter where you live. Haha, I wish

    Reply
  • August 29, 2019 at 2:05 am
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    Quantum theory is awesome and weird and even both at the same time lol

    Reply
  • August 30, 2019 at 5:13 am
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    I AM LOST!

    Reply
  • August 31, 2019 at 7:43 am
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    Did nobody notice the clicking sound at 0:40

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  • August 31, 2019 at 9:16 am
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    stop being me

    Reply
  • August 31, 2019 at 10:20 pm
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    couldn't we have instant communication with a similar method?

    Reply
  • September 2, 2019 at 7:26 am
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    I disliked and liked this video synchronously.

    Reply
  • September 3, 2019 at 1:58 am
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    Yeah but… My dad told me they've been predicting fusion 20 years away for 50 years 30 years ago…

    Reply
  • September 8, 2019 at 7:38 am
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    Easy way to prevent a computer from being hacked by a quantum computer: Add a wait time between password/access attempts to 1 per second. A 8 character password would take 89,456.8 years to crack (assuming no password changes and only letters and numbers are used)

    Reply
  • September 8, 2019 at 10:05 pm
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    AI and Quantum Computing combined are likely to end the human race.

    Reply
  • September 12, 2019 at 11:26 pm
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    Who the heck bothers disliking these videos?

    Reply
  • September 16, 2019 at 2:34 pm
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    It’s true that nuclear reactors cannot explode like an atomic weapon but under certain conditions the build up of hydrogen will cause explosions strong enough to destroy the containment unit. Fukushima was a good example.

    Reply
  • September 17, 2019 at 11:50 pm
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    I fucking hate it when people say "people have been saying we'll have fusion in 20 years for the last 50 years" NO THEY FUCKING HAVEN'T. Predictions have centered around 2025-2030 since the 1970s. Occasionally someone will say it might take longer or might happen sooner, but the bell curve has not moved. The center is still around 2030. That's where the best predictions were in 1970 and 1980 and 1990 and 2000 and 2010 and now.

    Reply
  • September 22, 2019 at 12:47 am
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    Bro make a video on Arc reactor.

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  • September 23, 2019 at 5:36 pm
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    I feel like, these guys have a lot of stuff to get Confused on.. Than i do…

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  • September 23, 2019 at 9:43 pm
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    Google said it achieved it

    Reply
  • September 28, 2019 at 12:30 am
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    Can we use the nearly unlimited solar power available in space to create antimatter in quantities useful as a portable energy source?

    Reply
  • September 29, 2019 at 8:29 pm
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    I wonder who makes these very pretty background layer animations … and how they do it. I wish I could do that.

    Reply
  • October 4, 2019 at 12:46 am
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    WTF!!!!

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  • October 16, 2019 at 8:05 pm
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    Reading a quantum state? Wild

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  • October 21, 2019 at 6:54 am
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    The fuck?

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  • October 22, 2019 at 5:22 pm
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    Sooo, when will we get Quantum-porn then?

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  • October 23, 2019 at 9:34 pm
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    This is the internet I like. Just take a step back and imagine you're watching this fifteen years ago. Crazy.

    Reply
  • October 24, 2019 at 8:39 pm
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    You see youtube accidentally already made quantum internet, when you upload video it is in superposition, it is neither liked or disliked and then people collapse that state by liking or disliking it.

    Reply
  • November 1, 2019 at 11:02 pm
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    6:05 that made them look like a mated pair, lol

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  • November 7, 2019 at 9:11 am
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    Who are the other fucking nerd is time to stop

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  • November 10, 2019 at 11:52 am
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    I liked and disliked it on two different systems, TAKE THAT QUANTUM MECHANICS!!!

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  • November 16, 2019 at 1:56 am
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    A quantum state of the YouTube algorithm told to my superposition to move the fuck on to something easier to entangle to, like music or so.

    Reply
  • November 19, 2019 at 11:36 pm
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    I agree with this man

    Reply
  • November 20, 2019 at 2:16 am
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    I feel fucking stupid

    Reply
  • November 20, 2019 at 4:04 pm
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    engineering-and-science.com/Schrodinger-equation.html

    Reply
  • November 28, 2019 at 5:39 pm
    Permalink

    I really try but every time I watch your videos I learn absolutely nothing. I find myself a somewhat smart guy and follow a lot of these things in science and find pride in being self taught but I think you are so far deep into this subject that you think everyone else gets it or knows what you’re talking about. We don’t. I’m not quite sure what you can do to make it better, maybe have someone that doesn’t know much about the subject and let them watch an almost finished video to get their opinion? I realize you’re doing just fine but I think you could be doing even better and getting more people into science.

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